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Comments on the subject of Dutch Art

Below are the comments we received so far:

Nice clouds, But really, it isn’t quite art with a capital A, is it? Until recently, Dutch Art of the Golden Age was seen as technically good, but not very interesting. It was just too realistic, where was the artistic imagination?Simon Says

Dutch Portrait Painters

Changing the art of painting

Dutch Masters changed the art of painting forever with their brush strokes. Dutch painters such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Steen and Frans Hals, developed a worldwide reputation in the 16th and 17th centuries. But Dutch Masters were artistic pioneers in the centuries before and after the “golden era of painting” as well.

Zuylen van Nijevelt, Jacob

1816-06-29

Jacob Pieter Pompejus, baron van Zuylen van Nijevelt (29 June 1816, in Dordrecht – 4 November 1890, in The Hague) was a Dutch politician.

Barend Biesheuvel

1920-04-05

Barend Willem Biesheuvel (April 5, 1920 – April 29, 2001) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Anti Revolutionary Party (ARP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from July 6, 1971 until May 11, 1973.A Civil servant and Trade Union Leader by occupation, he was General Secretary of the Christian Farmers and Gardeners Association of the Netherlands (CBTB) from 1952 until 1959 and Chairman 1959 until 1963. Biesheuvel became a Member of the House of Representatives on November 6, 1956 after the Dutch general election of 1956. On March 7, 1961 he was selected as a Member of the European Parliament and dual served in those positions until July 24, 1963. Biesheuvel became the lijsttrekker (top candidate) of the Anti Revolutionary Party for the Dutch general election of 1963 and served as Party leader from July 1, 1963 until March 7, 1973. The Anti Revolutionary Party lost one seat but the following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement which formed the Cabinet Marijnen, Biesheuvel became Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and Minister for Suriname and Netherlands Antilles Affairs. On February 28, 1965 the Cabinet Marijnen fell and was replaced by the Cabinet Cals, Biesheuvel remained as Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and Minister for Suriname and Netherlands Antilles Affairs but served alongside Anne Vondeling as Deputy Prime Minister. On October 14, 1966 the Cabinet Cals also fell and a rump Cabinet Zijlstra was formed on November 22, 1966 Biesheuvel again remained as Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and Minister for Suriname and Netherlands Antilles Affairs and this time served alongside former Prime Minister Jan de Quay as Deputy Prime Minister. For the Dutch general election of 1967 Biesheuvel again as lijsttrekker won two seats, primarily due to the popularity of Prime Minister Jelle Zijlstra. However Zijlstra announced he didn't wanted the serve a full term as Prime Minister and endorsed his Party leader Biesheuvel. The following cabinet formation failed to result in a coalition agreement to form a Cabinet Biesheuvel, and after a new cabinet formation the Cabinet De Jong was formed. Biesheuvel became the Parliamentary leader of the Anti Revolutionary Party in the House of Representatives on February 16, 1967 and returned to the House of Representatives on February 23, 1967. The Cabinet De Jong served a complete full term and for the Dutch general election of 1971 Biesheuvel again as lijsttrekker lost two seats, but the following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement to form the Cabinet Biesheuvel I. Biesheuvel became Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs. On July 19, 1972 the Cabinet Biesheuvel I fell and a rump Cabinet Biesheuvel II was formed on August 9, 1972. For the Dutch general election of 1972 Biesheuvel again as lijsttrekker won one seat and Biesheuvel again became the Parliamentary leader of the Anti Revolutionary Party in the House of Representatives on November 30, 1972 and returned to the House of Representatives on December 7, 1972. But the following slow cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement which formed the Cabinet Den Uyl and Biesheuvel announced his retirement from politics and stood down as Party leader of the Anti Revolutionary Party and resigned as Parliamentary leader of the Anti Revolutionary Party in the House of Representatives and as a Member of the House of Representatives on March 7, 1973. Biesheuvel remained as Prime Minister until the Cabinet Den Uyl was installed on May 11, 1973. After his premiership, Biesheuvel retired from active politics at the age of fifty-three and occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in the business and industry world (KLM, NIBC Bank, CSM N.V., AVEBE) and led several governmental commissions.

Agt, Dries van

1931-02-02

Andreas Antonius Maria "Dries" van Agt (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdris fɑn ˈɑxt]; born 2 February 1931) is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from December 19, 1977, until November 4, 1982.He previously served as Minister of Justice from July 6, 1971, until September 8, 1977, in the Cabinets Biesheuvel I, II and Den Uyl. And Deputy Prime Minister from May 11, 1973, until September 8, 1977, in the Cabinet Den Uyl. He resigned as Minister of Justice and Deputy Prime Minister to become the first Christian Democratic Appeal Party leader and the first Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives which he served from May 26, 1977, until December 19, 1977, and a Member of the House of Representatives from June 8, 1977 until December 19, 1977. Van Agt became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, leading the Cabinets Van Agt I, II and III. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs for his Third cabinet.After his premiership, Van Agt remained in active politics and became the Queen's Commissioner of North Brabant serving from June 1, 1983, until April 22, 1987, when he resigned as Queen's Commissioner because of criticism on his performance and his cooperation with the States-Provincial. After leaving North Brabant, he became a diplomat for the European Communities, serving first as ambassador to Japan from April 1, 1987, until April 1, 1989, when he became the ambassador to the United States until April 1, 1995.

Balkenende, Jan Peter

1956-05-07

Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈjɑn ˈpeːtər ˈbɑlkənˌɛndə] (13px ); born 7 May 1956) is a Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 until 14 October 2010.He previously served as a Member of the House of Representatives from 19 May 1998 until 22 July 2002. After then CDA Party leader and Parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives Jaap de Hoop Scheffer stepped down after an internal power struggle, between him and then CDA Party Chair Marnix van Rij. Balkenende succeed him in both positions, and became the CDA Lijsttrekker for the Dutch general election of 2002. The CDA became the surprising winner of the election, gaining 14 seats (from 29 to 43) and becoming the largest party in the House of Representatives. This success was in part owed to Balkenende and to his neutral attitude in the debate with LPF leader Pim Fortuyn, for not having participated in the supposed 'demonization' by the political Left. Fortuyn was assassinated during the national election campaign on 6 May 2002.Balkenende became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, leading the Cabinet Balkenende I but it collapsed after just 87 days in office because of internal conflicts within the LPF that destabilised the government. After the Dutch general election of 2003, Balkenende who again as CDA Lijsttrekker gained 1 seat and formed the new Cabinet Balkenende II. The cabinet fell on 30 June 2006 after the D66, the smallest coalition party withdrew its support of the cabinet over the way Minister for Integration and Immigration Rita Verdonk had handled the crisis around the naturalization of Member of the House of Representatives Ayaan Hirsi Ali. A rump cabinet Balkenende III was formed and stayed in office until the Dutch general election of 2006. Balkenende again as Lijsttrekker lost three seats but the CDA remained by far the largest party with 41 seats. After the cabinet formation, the new Cabinet Balkenende IV took office on 22 February 2007. The cabinet fell on 20 February 2010 as the result of disagreement between CDA and Labour Party over the extension of ISAF mission in Afghanistan. For the Dutch general election of 2010, Balkenende for a fourth time as Lijsttrekker resigned his position as Party leader taking political responsibility after the CDA's disappointing results in the election. He remained as Prime Minister of the Netherlands until the new Cabinet Rutte was installed on 14 October 2010.After his premiership, Balkenende retired from active politics and became a Partner Corporate Responsibility at the professional services firm Ernst & Young and became professor of Governance, Institutions and Internationalization at the Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Jelle Zijlstra

1918-08-27

Jelle Zijlstra (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈjɛlə ˈzɛilstraː]; 27 August 1918 – 23 December 2001) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Anti Revolutionary Party (ARP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 November 1966 until 5 April 1967.An Economist by occupation, he became a professor of Economics at the Vrije Universiteit at the age of thirty in 1948. Zijlstra was asked to become Minister of Economic Affairs after the Dutch general election of 1952 in the Cabinet Drees II under Prime Minister Willem Drees of the Labour Party, he resigned as a professor the same day he took office as the new Minister of Economic Affairs on 2 September 1952. Zijlstra became the lijsttrekker (top candidate) of the Anti Revolutionary Party for the Dutch general election of 1956 and served as Party leader from 23 April 1956 to 3 October 1956, and as the Parliamentary leader of the Anti Revolutionary Party in the House of Representatives from 14 June 1956 to 3 October 1956 and a Member of the House of Representatives from 3 July 1956 to 3 October 1956. After a slow cabinet formation the Cabinet Drees III was formed and Zijlstra remained as Minister of Economic Affairs. The Cabinet Drees III fell on 22 December 1958 and a caretaker cabinet was formed by former Prime Minister Louis Beel of the Catholic People's Party. Zijlstra remained as Minister of Economic Affairs and dual served as Minister of Finance in the Cabinet Beel II. Zijlstra again became the lijsttrekker for the Anti Revolutionary Party during the Dutch general election of 1959, and served as Party leader of the Anti Revolutionary Party a second time from 29 December 1958 until 26 May 1959. After a quicker formation the new Cabinet De Quay was formed on 19 May 1959. Zijlstra remained as Minister of Finance under the new Prime Minister Jan de Quay of the Catholic People's Party, and served until 14 July 1963 when the Cabinet Marijnen was installed.Zijlstra became a Member of the Senate on 25 June 1963 and returned to the Vrije Universiteit as an associate professor of Public finances. On 14 October 1966 the Cabinet Cals the successor of the Cabinet Marijnen fell after the Party leader of the Catholic People's Party Norbert Schmelzer proposed a Motion of no confidence against the Cabinet Cals and Prime Minister Jo Cals who was a member of his own party. The Dutch political landscape was fractured and Zijlstra was asked to form a caretaker cabinet which had the main task to write out an early Dutch general election in 1967. Zijlstra became Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs on 22 November 1966 and resigned as a Member of the Senate. Zijlstra dual served as Minister of Finance leading the Cabinet Zijlstra until 5 April 1967 when the Cabinet De Jong was installed.After his premiership, Zijlstra retired from active politics at the age of forty-eight and became the President of the Central Bank of the Netherlands, serving from 1 May 1967 until 1 January 1982. On 16 September 1966 he was already named as President of the Central Bank of the Netherlands but his unexpected premiership delayed this. Zijlstra also occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in the business and industry world. Zijlstra was widely respected for his expertise and integrity, and was a godparent of King Willem-Alexander. On 30 April 1983 he was granted the honorary title of Minister of State, which he held until his death.

Jo Cals

1914-07-18

Jozef Maria Laurens Theo "Jo" Cals (July 18, 1914 – December 30, 1971) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from April 14, 1965 until November 22, 1966. He previously served as a Member of the House of Representatives from August 19, 1948 until March 15, 1950, when he became State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science serving from March 15, 1950 until September 2, 1952 in the Cabinets Drees-Van Schaik and Drees I. He became Minister of Education, Culture and Science serving from September 2, 1952 until July 24, 1963 in the Cabinets Drees II, III, Beel II and De Quay. He again returned to the House of Representatives for two short periods, after the Dutch general election of 1956 and 1959. Serving from July 3, 1956 until October 3, 1956 and from March 20, 1959 until May 19, 1959. And again a Member of the House of Representatives from July 2, 1963 until April 14, 1965. After the fall of the Cabinet Marijnen, Cals became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, leading the Cabinet Cals.After his premiership, Cals semi-retired from active politics and served as a civil servant leading several governmental commissions. On December 5, 1966 he was granted the honorary title of Minister of State, which he held until his death.

Uyl, Joop den

1919-08-09

Johannes Marten den Uijl, known as Joop den Uyl (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈjoːb dɛn ˈœy̯l]; 9 August 1919 – 24 December 1987) was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 11 May 1973 until 19 December 1977.Den Uyl previously served as a Member of the House of Representatives from 6 November 1956 until 5 June 1963. He became Minister of Economic Affairs from 14 April 1965 until 22 November 1966 in the Cabinet Cals. He became the Labour Party Party leader on 13 September 1966 and served as the Parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives from 15 February 1967 until 11 May 1973 and again a Member of the House of Representatives from 23 February 1967 until 11 May 1973. Den Uyl became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, leading the Cabinet Den Uyl.After his prime-ministership, Den Uyl remained in active politics and returned as the Parliamentary leader in House of Representatives from 16 January 1978 until 10 September 1981 and a Member of the House of Representatives from 16 January 1978 until 11 September 1981. He became Minister of Social Affairs and Employment, Minister for Suriname and Netherlands Antilles Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister from 11 September 1981 until 29 May 1982 in the Cabinet Van Agt II. After the fall of this cabinet, Den Uyl again became the Parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives from 7 September 1982 until his resignation as Parliamentary leader and as the Labour Party Party leader on 21 July 1986, he was succeeded in both positions by Wim Kok. He served as a Member of the House of Representatives for the last time from 16 September 1982 until his death on 24 December 1987.He was seen as an idealistic, but also polarizing politician. Throughout history, Dutch political leaders have tended to soothing manners - Den Uyl was one of a relatively few exceptions. People either loved him or hated him. Followers of his idealistic policies called him Ome Joop (Uncle Joop). He was criticized for creating a budget deficit and polarizing Dutch politics. Associated with Den Uyl was the maakbare samenleving (the makeable society, the idea that society is constructed and that government is a player in the construction). Another idea associated with Den Uyl was de verbeelding aan de macht (imagination in the driver's seat, the power of conceptual thinking, particularly in politics).

Jong, Piet de

1915-04-03

Petrus Jozef Sietse "Piet" de Jong (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈpid də ˈjɔŋ]; born April 3, 1915) is a retired Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from April 5, 1967 until July 6, 1971.A veteran naval officer of World War II, De Jong graduated from the Royal Netherlands Naval College in 1934 and joined the Royal Netherlands Navy Submarine Service and served on HNLMS O 24 during World War II, he ended the war as the commanding officer of that vessel, the HNLMS O 24 was one of the few Dutch submarines that survived World War II. During his service in World War II he was awarded the Bronze Cross twice, the first time in 1940 and for the second time in 1943, De Jong was also awarded the Distinguished Service Cross of the United Kingdom for his services and leadership during World War II.After World War II De Jong continued to serve in the Royal Netherlands Navy, commanding the frigate HNLMS De Zeeuw from 1951 until 1952 and the destroyer HNLMS Gelderland from 1958 until 1959. Between his two assignments as commanding officer he served as chief of staff to Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld and aide-de-camp to Queen Juliana from 1955 until 1958. De Jong eventually rose to the rank of Captain in 1958 but retired from active service a year later when he was asked by the Catholic People's Party to serve on their behalf as State Secretary for Defence dealing with matters of the Royal Netherlands Navy.De Jong served as State Secretary for Defence from June 25, 1959 until July 24, 1963 in the Cabinet De Quay. He later became Minister of Defence serving from July 24, 1963 until April 5, 1967 in the Cabinets Marijnen, Cals and Zijlstra. After the Dutch general election of 1967, De Jong became Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs, leading the Cabinet de Jong. He also served as acting Minister of Economic Affairs from January 7, 1970 until January 14, 1970 following the resignation of Leo de Block, he was succeeded by Roelof Nelissen. The resignation of De Block marked the only change in the Council of Ministers during the full term of the cabinet.Despite his popularity, the Catholic People's Party refused to nominate him as the lijsttrekker (top candidate) for the Dutch general election of 1971 because of his alleged "conservative image" and he was replaced by his Minister of Education and Science Gerard Veringa who had a more "progressive image". After his premiership, De Jong remained in active politics and became the Parliamentary leader of the Catholic People's Party in the Senate and a Member of the Senate serving from May 11, 1971 until September 17, 1974 and finally retiring from active politics at the age of fifty nine. Following the end of his active political career, De Jong occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in the business and industry world (Royal Dutch Shell, Douwe Egberts, Het Financieele Dagblad, DAF, Koninklijke Hoogovens, SHV Holdings, CSM N.V., Radio Netherlands Worldwide and the Netherlands Red Cross).De Jong is known for his dry wit and quick remarks. His abilities as a team leader with perspective and pragmatism were greatly admired. The Cabinet De Jong was the first cabinet after World War II that completed a full term without any internal conflicts. As of 2015, he is the oldest and earliest serving former Prime Minister of the Netherlands and the second oldest living state leader (and the oldest living non-acting state leader) at the age of 100. Over 43 years after he left office, De Jong continues to comment on political affairs as an elder statesman.

Ruud Lubbers

1939-05-07

Rudolphus Franciscus Marie "Ruud" Lubbers (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈryt ˈlʏbərs] (13px ); born 7 May 1939) is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 4 November 1982 until 22 August 1994. A businessman and economist by occupation, Lubbers was a corporate director with Hollandia Corporate from 1965 until 1973 when he left to become Minister of Economic Affairs from 11 May 1973 until 19 December 1977 in the Cabinet den Uyl. He became a Member of the House of Representatives from 22 December 1977 until 4 November 1982. Originally a member of the Catholic People's Party, since 1980 he has been a member of the CDA. When CDA parliamentary leader Wim Aantjes resigned due to a World War II controversy, Lubbers succeed him and served from 7 November 1978 until 4 November 1982. When CDA party leader and sitting Prime Minister Dries van Agt announced his retirement, Lubbers was chosen to succeed him and became Prime Minister. The longest-tenured Prime Minister in Dutch history, he headed the Cabinets Lubbers I, II and III. Lubbers was regarded by many during his time in office as an ideological heir to Margaret Thatcher. One of his campaign slogans was: "meer markt, minder overheid" (more market, less government).After his premiership, Lubbers semi-retired from active politics and became a Professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard and Tilburg University from 1995 until 2001. He became the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on 1 January 2001 and served until his resignation on 20 February 2005. Lubbers acted as informateur for two cabinet formations, the Cabinet Balkenende III in 2006 and the Cabinet Rutte in 2010. Lubbers holds the records of being the youngest Prime Minister in Dutch history, as well as the longest-tenured Prime Minister in Dutch history. He is currently a member of the Club de Madrid, an organization of former democratic statesmen that works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership.